A person can be a good manager, but not necessarily a good leader; another person might be a good leader, but might not a good manager. The difference between them is that the manager is committed to creating order and stability, while leaders are embracing and process change. “Leadership” is to create a vision for others to follow established organizational values and ethics, and find some method to improve the effectiveness and efficiency. All organizations need effective managers who can inspire staff, set the general direction and responsible for the outcome from the organization. Leadership is often been as a crucial variable which affecting organizational performance.
Definitions of Leadership
Leadership is the ability for one to develop a vision, and move others toward a common goal. According Northouse’s, he defined that ‘Leadership is a process by which an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve common goals.’ Therefore, leadership is a process, a person to influence others to achieve a goal, and to guide the way the organization, making it more cohesive and coherent.
Leadership also includes changes in vision, the people with the vision and strategic adjustments, motivate and inspire them.
Different classical leadership theories
There were so many review of the concept of leadership theory and empirical literature reveals a variety of methods have been developed for many years. One of the approaches was the traits approach; this approach has been studied for many decades. The theory assumes that leader are born rather than made. Basically there were three major assumptions: 1) leaders are born; 2) certain traits are particularly fitted to leadership; 3) People who take the perfect combination of leadership qualities. And the scholars have identified some main leadership traits: intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity and sociability.
In recent year Yukl (2006) reviewed that there were several traits which related to leadership effectiveness; a high energy level and stress tolerance, self-confidence, including the self-esteem and self-efficacy; control direction, emotional stability and maturity, as well as internal genes personal integrity.
After trait theory, there was a big jump to the behavioural theory; it assumes that leadership can be learned, not intrinsic. Leadership behaviour theory is leading theory that the reaction in certain circumstances observable behavior and leaders and followers. Behavioral theory focuses on the behavior of the leadership, and that the leaders can be, not born, leadership success is based on definable, can be learned behavior. his theory can be adjusted in a particular stimulus may have a particular way of behavior-based response to the following principles. Rather than seeking natural leadership qualities, look at this theory by studying their behavior in response to different situations, by studying their actions and behaviors associated with significant success actually doing successful evaluation leadership. The practical application of the theory is the leader’s behavior will affect their performance and different leadership behavior may be appropriate at different times. The best leaders are those who have adaptive bending their behavior and choose the appropriate style for each situation. According to this theory, people can learn to be recognized as leaders through teaching and observation of leadership styles, as well as certain behavior patterns.
Behavioural theory also promotes leadership style, emphasizing the value of people’s attention and cooperation. It promotes participation in decision making and team development, support for individual needs and adjusts the targeted individuals and groups. Leadership behavior theory focuses on the behavior of the leader, the leader of what to do and how to act, but also pay attention to the leaders actually do, rather than their quality.
Contingency theory is not a leadership style, and these properties are leadership, make-up leader, face a different set of tasks. All the situation are unique, the ideal leader to lead the situation will be unique, too. Some of the major contingency theory are : 1) Fiedler’s contingency theory; 2) Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory; 3) Path-Goal Theory.
Fiedler’s contingency theory point out that effective leadership depends not only on leadership style, but exceeds the control one. We need to have good relationship between leaders-member, task structure and position power. In general, the effectiveness of leadership depends on the situation, there are a number of factors, such as a combination of task’s nature, personality and member of the task group leader is guided.
Fiedler has created the least-preferred co-worker score (LPC), an instrument that tells to measure whether a leader is task or relationship oriented. A leader who has a low LPC score then the leader is task-oriented. If the high LPC score then the person is relationship-oriented. Fiedler claimed LPC scores can be used to determine the appropriate leadership situation. If the leaders can control tasks to do, under the circumstances leading driven, but also have power, leaders are able to create a good environment for leadership. Low LPCS is very effective to complete the task, they quickly organized a number of tasks and projects get done. For relationship building is a low priority. On the other hand relationship-oriented leaders usually view their LPCS more active, give them a higher score. These are high LPC leader. High LPCS more attention to personal relationships, and they are good at avoiding and dealing with conflicts.
Situational Leadership Theory
According to Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory, it will depend on individual circumstances and not a single leadership style can be considered the best. And each task is different for each type of task requires a different leadership style. The theory has two dimensions: leadership style and the maturity of those being led. Therefore, situational leadership is about leadership willing to adopt their style followers. Jesse Blanchard and recognition also lead four styles, they are: Telling sales, participation and delegation. Tell: This means that leaders tell their followers in the end how to do and how to do it. Sales leaders to provide information and directions, it involves more interaction with their followers. Leaders try to sell their information or ideas get the support of his followers. Participants pay more attention to the relationship between the leader and the leader of the team, also shares decision-making responsibilities. Finally, the commission, the leadership has the responsibility to appoint the most followers. Leaders of monitoring progress and decisions they are less involved in decision-making.
On the basis of House’s Path-goal theory, stated that the leader need to assist the followers in attaining their goals and to give the direction and support to the follower to ensure them to obtain the overall goals and objectives. Base on the theory there are four different types of leadership:
Directive leadership ‘ Tell subordinates what they should do, it is more focused on the task
Supportive leadership ‘ focus on the relationships, and the leaders show sensitivity to the needs of each team member, but also consider the best interests of the team members.
Participative leadership ‘Decisions are based on advice and information to share with the group the group. With the participation of the leadership, this is to focus on participation.
Achievement-oriented leadership ‘ Setting challenging goals, and also the ability to display confidence in the group of high-performance encouragement.
Contingency Leadership Theories And Effective Leadership
Contingency Leadership Theories and Effective Leadership
Contingency leadership theories attempt to define leadership style, the situation, and answer the if-then contingencies. Situational leadership theory is a contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness: the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. Path-goal theory states that it is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide direction or support needed to ensure that their goals are compatible with the organization or group goals. Each theory was developed as a separate model for leaders to determine which leadership style to use in different contexts or situations. However, both models can be related to each other and may be even more effective when used together. Effective leaders will recognize that they must adjust their styles and behaviors according to their followers and the environment. By accurately assessing their team’s stage while minimizing redundancies in the environmental structure leaders can improve their team’s performance and satisfaction.
Styles and Behavior
In situational leadership theory and path-goal theory, both theories assume that leaders are flexible and can display any or all styles depending on the situation or environment. Situational leadership theory emphasizes the importance of adjusting leadership style based on the needs of the followers. Path-goal theory leaders help followers along their path and are more effective if they adapt their behaviors to the current environment. Each leadership theory describes four different styles or behaviors to use for effective leadership. The style of telling, selling, participating, and delegating are used in STL while directive, supportive, participative, and achievement-oriented are the leadership behaviors used in path-goal theory.
The two theories are different in their descriptions of the types of styles/behaviors but still apply to each other. A directive leader in path-goal theory lets subordinates know what is expected of them, schedules work to be done, and gives specific guidance on how to accomplish tasks. That behavior applies to both telling and selling styles in STL. The leader in the telling style defines roles and tells people what, how, when, and where to do various tasks. The leader in the selling style provides both directive and supportive behavior. In path-goal theory, a participative leader consults with group members and uses their suggestions before making a decision. That behavior is very similar to the participating style in STL where the leader and followers share in decision-making and the main role of the leader is facilitating and communicating. The achievement-oriented leader in path-goal theory can apply to all styles of STL. The supportive leader in path-goal theory shows concern for the needs of followers and is friendly, which can also apply to all styles of STL but with less emphasis once a...
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