Breast Cancer Treatment Essay Checker

Research Paper on Breast Cancer

How to start a research paper on breast cancer

The first is to think about the introductory part of the research paper on breast cancer that aims to catch the eyes of the reader. Researching is important to know more about the prevalence of breast cancer, the cause, the prevalence, and the impact on the population. The rationale is to gain more knowledge about breast cancer that is potentially hazardous to the longevity and the health and well-being of the person.

Tips on how to start

  • A research paper must have an introduction to introduce the topic that will try to familiarize the leaders about the topic that will be discussed.
  • The researcher should collect important data to ensure that the research process is ready to consolidate and present it to the audience.
  • There should be an outline for each research study on a certain topic such as breast cancer as one of the most dangerous diseases in the world today.
  • Identify what method of analysis will be applied to the research paper if it is either qualitative or quantitative.
  • A research paper must have at least a thesis statement that provides a formal way to introduce the topic to the readers.

Example of an outline

I. Introduction
A. Background about breast cancer
B. Problem statement about breast cancer
C. History of breast cancer
D. Thesis
II. Body Section
A. Factors affecting breast cancer
B. Why breast cancer is a concerning disease
III. Body Section
A. Complications of breast cancer
B. Pathophysiology of breasts with cancer
IV. Body Section
A. Diagnostic testing
B. Breast cancer treatment
C. Prevention against breast cancer
V. Conclusion
A. Relating the background of the story
B. Restating the thesis.

Example of a breast cancer research paper thesis

Women who fail to conduct breast self-assessment indicate lack of awareness about the risk of developing breast cancer. Others do not undergo a regular check-up to determine if they are either at risk or not for developing breast cancer. Females only notice that they are now suffering if they are already feeling the signs and symptoms until it is already too late to undergo for treatment.

Example of introduction

Breast cancer is defined as the process of suffering from both benign and malignant tumors on either or both of the breasts of the patient. This is caused by either a modifiable or nonmodifiable risk factor which concerns with the severity and the prevalence on the presence of cancer cells on the affected parts of the body. Breast cancer is a life-threatening disease, especially if the stage of the disease is already on its terminal stage without being screened (Siu, 2016). The cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body, causing another form of infection to the affected tissue or organ of the body. This paper will be discussing the prevalence rate, mortality, and morbidity of breast cancer, which affects millions of patients around the world.

How to write body paragraphs for a research paper on breast cancer

Every researcher should know that the body paragraph of every research paper is important because it seeks to expound the main discussion of the subject. The body is where the main topic is being discussed. Researchers will be able to define, relate examples, and its impacts on the target individuals regarding the issues that are relevant to the research topic.

Tips on body writing

  • The body should be segmented into different parts that separately discuss several key issues relevant to the main subject of the study.
  • Each segment should have a literature study to further explain the significance of the main subject matter to different kinds of topics being discussed from the paper.
  • The body needs credible sources as the researcher explains the relevance of the subject matter through specific details that are connected with the research topic.
  • Each discussion from every segment of the research should be supported with examples to narrate the whole scenario of the topic being discussed.
  • Each discussion should be always concise and not be beating around the bush.
  • Example of the 1st body paragraph

    The modifiable cause of breast cancer is related to the lifestyle of the patient, which affects their health. This includes their sedentary lifestyle, which plays an important role in limiting their proactive lifestyle, impacting their health and longevity. The non-modifiable factor is attributed to their gender as a female because most sufferers of breast cancers are all females. Heredity and age is also an inevitable scenario, impacting the risk of developing similar health care situation to the next generation kin of the patients (Biswas, Oh, Faulkner, Bajaj, Silver, Mitchell & Alter, 2015).

    Example of the 2nd body paragraph

    Breast cancer is a life-threatening disease of the human body. Visible signs and symptoms include unusual enlargement of the breast, lump on the breast, tenderness of the breast, and unusual discharges from the breast. If left untreated, palliative care is the only applicable treatment applied to the patient (Moyer, 2013).

    Example of the 3rd body paragraph

    Surgical removal of the cancerous cyst is recommended for patients suffering from the disease. This includes double mastectomy so that the patient’s affected organs and tissues will no longer infect other parts of the body. Radiation or chemotherapy is the most common treatment applied to the patient along with the medication regimen as well as screening procedures (Gotzsche & Jorgensen, 2013).

    How to finish a research paper on breast cancer

    It is best to finish the research paper with wrapping up what has been said and giving recommendations. This is to end the conversation between a reader and the presented research.

    Tips on conclusion writing

    • Provide a detailed outline of the research regarding the pertinent data being discussed.
    • Always use a concise way of concluding each paragraph.
    • State your final thoughts about the main subject of the topic such as the impact of breast cancer on the society.
    • Reveal insight corresponding to the issue is associated with the relevance of breast cancer prevalence to the society.
    • Recommendations should be applied for the concluding paragraph, stating what can be done to prevent breast cancer development to the society.

    Example of a conclusion

    It has been concluded that breast cancer is prevalent if the patient was not aware of the proper handling of diet management and having an uncontrollable sedentary lifestyle. Even if you are at risk, breast cancer is still a disease that could affect your health and longevity. We should realize that breast cancer is a life-threatening disease and could happen to anyone who was practicing a poor healthy lifestyle. Preventive measures such as engaging in a productive dissemination and awareness program are important to increase the number of individuals who are willing to cooperate with health care professionals.

    Tips on research paper revision

    It is important to proofread before finalizing the paper – this is to check all grammatical inconsistencies or grammars.

    • Check if the sources exist online so that it is easier for the audience to have an access to the facts.
    • Refer to your research adviser to know other issues that are needed to be changed or revised.
    • Never consider your paper as the final output prior to your defense.
    • Proofread multiple times as possible before submitting to the adviser or prior to defense.

    References

    • Biswas A, Oh PI, Faulkner GE, Bajaj RR, Silver MA, Mitchell MS & Alter DA (2015). “Sedentary Time and Its Association With Risk for Disease Incidence, Mortality, and Hospitalization in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis”. Annals of Internal Medicine. 162 (2): 123–32. 
    • Gøtzsche PC, &Jørgensen KJ (2013). “Screening for breast cancer with mammography.”. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 6: CD001877. 
    • Moyer VA (2013). “Medications for Risk Reduction of Primary Breast Cancer in Women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.”. Annals of Internal Medicine. 159: 698–708. 
    • Siu, Albert L. (12 January 2016). “Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement”. Annals of Internal Medicine. 164: 279–96.
Metastatic breast cancer is when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body. Also referred to as stage 4 or advanced cancer, it can occur if initial treatment for breast cancer has not been successful.

Breast cancer can spread when cancer cells do one of the following:

  • invade nearby healthy cells and replicate
  • travel throughout the body in the bloodstream
  • lodge in capillaries and move into nearby tissue
  • form new tumors in other places around the body

Symptoms

Symptoms of metastatic breast cancer depend upon where the cancer has spread to. The areas it often spreads to are the brain, bone, lungs, or liver.

Brain


Metastatic breast cancer, also known as stage 4 breast cancer, is when the cancer cells spread to other areas in the body.

Depending on where in the brain the cancer spreads to, it can cause:

  • headaches
  • seizures
  • changes in behavior
  • disturbed vision
  • vomiting
  • nausea

Bones

If cancer spreads to the bones, it can cause:

  • severe pain
  • increased chance of fractures
  • swelling
  • decreased mobility
  • spinal cord compression

Lungs

If cancer spreads to the lungs, it often shows no symptoms but can cause:

  • shortness of breath
  • coughing up blood
  • chest pain

Liver

If cancer spreads to the liver, it can cause:

  • pain
  • loss of appetite
  • yellowing of the skin
  • itchy skin or rash
  • vomiting and nausea
  • bleeding

Other symptoms

Other general symptoms of metastatic breast cancer can include:

However, these symptoms can also be caused by medication and depression associated with the condition. It's important to identify these symptoms early and contact a doctor so the right treatment can be arranged.

Treatment

There are several ways to treat metastatic breast cancer. Treatment depends on the hormone receptor status or type of breast cancer.

Around two in three cases of breast cancer test positive for hormone receptors. These cancers are named as either:

  • Estrogen receptor positive (ER+): where the cancer cells have receptors for the hormone estrogen.
  • Progesterone receptor positive (PR+): where the cancer cells have receptors for the hormone progesterone.

A third type of breast cancer is known as HER2 positive (HER+). This is where there is a higher level of a particular protein, called human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). It makes up around 15 to 20 percent of breast cancer cases where the cancer is likely to spread.

Another type of breast cancer is triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). This is where the cancer cells do not have receptors for estrogen, progesterone or HER2.

About 10 to 20 percent of breast cancers are TNBC. These cancers can't be treated with hormone therapy, but other treatments can be used.

A decision on treatment will be made after the hormone receptor status has been determined.

Hormone therapy treatment


Hormone therapy may be taken as a tablet or injected into a muscle.

Hormone therapy either lowers the level of estrogen or progesterone in the body, or blocks their effects on the body.

It is generally used when the breast cancer cells have ER+. In the case of metastatic breast cancer, it is used to control the cancer.

There are four main types of hormone treatment:

Tamoxifen

This treatment is usually taken as a tablet and is used when a person has:

  • ER+ cancer cells
  • not reached menopause
  • not previously had tamoxifen treatment

Aromatase inhibitors (AIs)

This treatment is also taken in tablet form and is used when someone has:

  • ER+ cancer cells
  • reached menopause
  • already had tamoxifen treatment

Fulvestrant

This treatment is injected into the muscle and is used when a person has:

  • ER+ cancer cells
  • reached menopause
  • already had tamoxifen or AI treatment

Progesterone

This can be taken as a tablet or by injection. It is used if the cancer has stopped responding to tamoxifen or AIs.

Side effects

Side effects are common in hormone therapies and vary depending on which drug is being taken.

They will generally be worse at the start of treatment and lessen as it goes on. The doctor may be able to help limit them.

The main side effects are:

  • hot flushes and sweating
  • changes to periods for pre-menopausal patients
  • less interest in sex
  • vaginal dryness or discharge
  • feeling sick
  • painful joints
  • mood changes
  • tiredness

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy aims to destroy cancer cells in the body. It targets both where the cancer started and where it has spread to.

Known as a systemic therapy, it affects the whole body because it is sent around via the bloodstream.

As the American Cancer Society explain, chemotherapy can stop the spread of cancer and prolong survival. However, there can also be side effects such as nerve damage and heart problems. Also, cancer cells can become resistant to chemotherapy.

Targeted drug therapy

Unlike chemotherapy, which attacks all growing cells cancerous or not, targeted drugs just work on cancerous cells. They are designed to block the growth of these cells and stop them spreading.

As such, they can work when chemotherapy does not. They can also help improve the effects of other types of treatment.

In the case of HER2+ breast cancers, there are a number of drugs that target this protein:


Targeted drugs only attack cancerous cells, unlike chemotherapy, which attacks all growing cells.

Trastuzumab

  • often used alongside chemotherapy
  • given into a vein

Pertuzumab

  • can be used with trastuzumab
  • given into a vein

Ado-trastuzumab emtansine

  • used if already treated by trastuzumab and chemotherapy
  • given into a vein

Lapatinib

  • typically used when trastuzumab is no longer working
  • used alongside certain chemotherapy and hormone therapy
  • taken as a tablet

Side effects

Trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and ado-trastuzumab emtansine can all cause heart damage. As such, patients should let their doctor know if they are experiencing:

  • shortness of breath
  • leg swelling
  • severe fatigue

Lapatinib can cause severe diarrhea, so patients should tell their doctor if this occurs. It can also cause hand-foot syndrome, where hands and feet become red and sore and can blister and peel.

In cases of ER+ and PR+, targeted drug therapy can be helpful alongside hormone therapy:

Palbociclib

For patients who have reached menopause, this drug slows cancer growth. Taken as a pill, it can cause:

  • anemia
  • tiredness
  • nausea
  • mouth sores
  • hair loss
  • diarrhea
  • increased chance of infection

Everolimus

For patients who have reached menopause, this can limit the growth of tumors. It also often helps hormone therapy work better. Taken as a pill, it can cause:

  • mouth sores
  • diarrhea
  • nausea
  • fatigue
  • low blood counts
  • shortness of breath
  • a cough
  • increased chance of infection

Surgery

There is some debate about whether surgery in cases of metastatic breast cancer improves survival rates. However, due to the negative effects of surgery it is not often offered as a treatment.

How is it monitored?

Monitoring, or follow-up care, is extremely important. This will check to see if the cancer has spread further, help to manage side effects, and monitor overall health.

The doctor will often examine the neck, chest, underarm, and breast area at check-ups. They will also check the general health of the patient.

If there are any new health problems, or changes to the treated area or other breast, then the doctor should be informed straight away.

Outlook

Outlook depends on the type of breast cancer, where it has spread to, and how much the tumor is affecting these areas.

The average survival time is 18 to 24 months, but it can vary widely. The American Cancer Society found that 22 percent of people who have metastatic breast cancer survive for 5 years or more.

Many people can live long and productive lives with metastatic breast cancer, and treatment can control the cancer.

Survival rates will vary depending on the individual, and the best thing to do is speak to the doctor to get a better understanding of specific circumstances.

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